论法的精神英文板(礼物)

at 3年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1384  by 名著  

 Of Presents. 

    It is a received custom in despotic countries never to address any superior whomsoever, not excepting their kings, without making them a present. The Mogul never receives the petitions of his subjects if they come with empty hands. These princes spoil even their own favours.

    But thus it must ever be in a government where no man is a citizen; where they have all a notion that a superior is under no obligation to an inferior; where men imagine themselves bound by no other tie than the chastisements inflicted by one party upon another; where, in fine, there is very little to do, and where the people have seldom an occasion of presenting themselves before the great, of offering their petitions, and much less their complaints.

    In a republic, presents are odious, because virtue stands in no need of them. In monarchies, honour is a much stronger incentive than presents. But in a despotic government, where there is neither honour nor virtue, people cannot be determined to act but through hope of the conveniences of life.

It is in conformity with republican ideas that Plato ordered those who received presents for doing their duty to be punished with death. "They must not take presents," says he, "neither for good nor for evil actions."

    A very bad law was that among the Romans which gave the magistrates leave to accept small presents provided they did not exceed one hundred crowns in the whole year. They who receive nothing expect nothing; they who receive a little soon covet more, till at length their desires swell to an exorbitant height.

    Besides, it is much easier to convict a man who knows himself obliged to accept no present at all, and yet will accept something, than a person who takes more when he ought to take less, and who always finds pretexts, excuses, and plausible reasons in justification of his conduct.

孟德斯鸠经典名言和思想主张:

    在共和国里,送礼是一件令人厌恶的事情,因为品德不需要它的存在。在君主国里,荣誉比礼物更具有鼓舞力量。然而在既没有品德,也没有荣誉的专制国家里,人们也许只能在为获得更为舒适的生活的希冀驱使下行事了。   

   罗马有一项坏法律,这项法律准许官吏每年接受不超过一百埃居的小礼物。没有赠送过别人任何东西的人,也不期待别人赠送任何东西。然而接受过别人一点儿东西的人,不久就希望再多要一点儿,乃至贪得无厌。不但如此,对一个本不应该接受礼物而接受了礼物的人而言,要使他服罪是比较容易的。但是对于一个允许接受少量礼物,他却接受了较多礼物的人来说,要他认罪就困难了。他总是会找出某些似乎有理的借口、托词、原因为自己的行为辩解。




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