论法的精神 ( 在民主政治下,对共和国的爱意味着什么)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1356  by FOR  

What is meant by a Love of the Republic in a Democracy.

A love of the republic in a democracy is a love of the democracy; as the latter is that of equality.【在民主政治之下,热爱共和国就是热爱民主政治;热爱民主政治就是热爱平等。】

A love of the democracy is likewise that of frugality.【热爱民主政治就是热爱俭朴】 Since every individual ought here to enjoy the same happiness and the same advantages, they should consequently taste the same pleasures and form the same hopes, which cannot be expected but from a general frugality.

The love of equality in a democracy limits ambition to the sole desire, to the sole happiness, of doing greater services to our country than the rest of our fellow-citizens. They cannot all render her equal services, but they all ought to serve her with equal alacrity. At our coming into the world, we contract an immense debt to our country, which we can never discharge.

Hence distinctions here arise from the principle of equality, even when it seems to be removed by signal services or superior abilities.

The love of frugality limits the desire of having to the study of procuring necessaries to our family, and superfluities to our country. Riches give a power which a citizen cannot use for himself, for then he would be no longer equal. They likewise procure pleasures which he ought not to enjoy, because these would be also repugnant to the equality.

Thus well-regulated democracies, by establishing domestic frugality, made way at the same time for public expenses, as was the case at Rome and Athens, when magnificence and profusion arose from the very fund of frugality. And as religion commands us to have pure and unspotted hands when we make our offerings to the gods, the laws required a frugality of life to enable them to be liberal to our country.magnificence富丽堂皇。profusion众多。【奢侈和浪费也正是从节约的资金中滋生的。这正如宗教要求人们要有洁净的手,才能向神明贡献祭物。法律则要求人们具备俭朴的风尚,才能有赢余奉献给国家。

The good sense and happiness of individuals depend greatly upon the mediocrity of their abilities and fortunes. Therefore, as a republic, where the laws have placed many in a middling station, is composed of wise men, it will be wisely governed; as it is composed of happy men, it will be extremely happy.【 很多人之所以理智而幸福,主要归因于他们平凡的才能和财富。】


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