论法的精神英文版(法律如何培养简朴精神) 

at 3年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1178  by 名著  

In what Manner the Laws ought to maintain Frugality in a Democracy. 

    It is not sufficient in a well-regulated democracy that the divisions of land be equal; they ought also to be small, as was customary among the Romans. "God forbid," said Curius to his soldiers, "thata citizen should look upon that as a small piece of land which is sufficient to maintain him."

古利乌斯告诉他的士兵们说 :“上帝要求每个公民尊重每一块足以养活一个人的微笑土地。

    As equality of fortunes supports frugality, so the latter maintains the former. These things, though in themselves different, are of such a nature as to be unable to subsist separately; they reciprocally act upon each other; if one withdraws itself from a democracy, the other surely follows it.

正如财富的平等保持着俭朴一样,俭朴也维持着财富的平等。二者尽管有不同,却有共同的性质,因而不能分别存在。他们互为因果;如果其中的一个脱离了民主政治的轨道,另一个也就不复存在了。    

    True is it that when a democracy is founded on commerce, private people may acquire vast riches without a corruption of morals.This is because the spirit of commerce is naturally attended with that of frugality, economy, moderation, labour, prudence, tranquillity, order, and rule. So long as this spirit subsists, the riches it produces have no bad effect. The mischief is, when excessive wealth destroys the spirit of commerce, then it is that the inconveniences of inequality begin to be felt. 

    In order to support this spirit, commerce should be carried on by the principal citizens; this should be their sole aim and study; this the chief object of the laws: and these very laws, by dividing the estates of individuals in proportion to the increase of commerce, should set every poor citizen so far at his ease as to be able to work like the rest, and every wealthy citizen in such a mediocrity as to be obliged to take some pains either in preserving or acquiring a fortune.

在一个经营贸易的共和国里,父亲们将遗产平均分给所有      

    It is an excellent law in a trading republic to make an equal division of the paternal estate among the children. The consequence of this is that how great soever a fortune the father has made, his children, being not so rich as he, are induced to avoid luxury, and to work as he has done. I speak here only of trading republics; as to those that have no commerce, the legislator must pursue quite different measures.

    In Greece there were two sorts of republics: the one military, like Sparta; the other commercial, as Athens. In the former, the citizens were obliged to be idle; in the latter, endeavours were used to inspire them with the love of industry and labour. Solon made idleness a crime, and insisted that each citizen should give an account of his manner of getting a livelihood. And, indeed, in a well-regulated democracy, where people's expenses should extend only to what is necessary, every one ought to have it; for how should their wants be otherwise supplied?

梭伦认为闲散是一种罪过,并要求每一个公民说明他谋杀的方式。诚然,在一个良好的民主政体之下,每个人都应该获得生活的必需品;其花费也应以生活必须为限,否则,人们的必需品从何而来?    


      

  

     

      

      

  


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