论法的精神 (专制政体的服从和宽和政治的服从)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1690  by 名著  

In despotic states, the nature of government requires the most passive obedience; and when once the prince's will is made known, it ought infallibly to produce its effect.

Infallibly:绝对无误地。

在专制国家里,政体的性质要求人们绝对的服从;而且君主一言既出、四马难追,绝对地产生效力。

   

Here they have no limitations or restrictions, no mediums, terms, equivalents, or remonstrances; no change to propose: man is a creature that blindly submits to the absolute will of the sovereign.

Remonstrance:抱怨,抗议。

在专制国家里,绝对没有诸如制衡、协商、平衡、进谏可言;完全不允许提出抗议和抱怨;人们只能无条件服从君主的绝对意志。


In a country like this they are no more allowed to represent their apprehensions of a future danger than to impute their miscarriage to the capriciousness of fortune. Man's portion here, like that of beasts, is instinct, compliance, and punishment.

Impute:把(错误等)归咎于。 Miscarriage:小产;流产;失策,失败   capricious:反复无常的

在那里,人们不能对未来的不确定表示出恐惧,也不得将遭遇归咎于命运不公。在这种政体中,人如同牲畜,只有本能、服从与惩罚。


Little does it then avail to plead the sentiments of nature, filial respect, conjugal or parental tenderness, the laws of honour, or want of health; the order is given, and, that is sufficient.

Avail:效用,利益。Filial:子女的 conjugal:婚姻的,夫妻之间的

人们不必乞求自然的情感即尊老爱幼,夫妻之情以及对荣誉的准则或健康状况的关注,这一切都毫无意义,只管服从命令就足够了。


In Persia, when the king has condemned a person, it is no longer lawful to mention his name, or to intercede in his favour. Even if the prince were intoxicated, or non compos, the decree must be executed; otherwise he would contradict himself, and the law admits of no contradiction. This has been the way of thinking in that country in all ages; as the order which Ahasuerus gave, to exterminate the Jews, could not be revoked, they were allowed the liberty of defending themselves.

Intercede:说情;斡旋,调解   non compos:精神失常的。

Ahasuerus:亚哈随鲁【人物介绍】: 波斯帝国王,即薛西斯一世。据《以斯帖记》载,亚哈随鲁登基后第三年大宴宾客,在盛宴中王传令王后瓦实提出见宾客,好让臣民一睹她的美貌丰姿。但瓦实提却抗命不出,因此被亚哈随鲁王废黜。之后,亚哈随鲁另选犹太女子以斯帖为王后。亚哈随鲁王的宠臣哈曼,十分专横,朝中所有的臣仆都要向他跪拜,唯独以斯帖的养父、犹太人末底改不肯跪拜哈曼。哈曼定意消灭全国所有的犹太人作为报复。然而,这一阴谋被以斯帖揭露。于是亚哈随鲁王下令将哈曼悬吊在绞刑架上,这绞刑架原是哈曼为绞死末底改准备的。亚哈随鲁王不但撤销哈曼灭绝犹太人的命令,还授权犹太人可以杀死他们的仇敌,并使末底改居于高位以取代哈曼。为庆祝犹太人转危为安,避免种族灭绝的事件,形成了每年的普珥节。公元前480年,薛西斯王率水陆大军侵伐希腊,因海军在撒拉米大败,被迫溃退。据波斯史籍载,薛西斯残暴无道,骄横淫逸,最后被他的两位大臣弑杀。

 

在波斯,对于被国王判定有罪之人,人们不得再向国王谈论这个人,也不得请求赦罪。如果国王是在醉酒或精神失常时下达这个命令,他的命令照样要执行,否则,他将自食其言,然而,法律是不会自相矛盾的。在那里,这种思维方式长期存在。亚哈随鲁因为无法收回已经下达的灭绝犹太人的命令,只得对犹太人的防卫行为表示默许。


One thing, however, may be sometimes opposed to the prince's will, namely, religion. They will abandon, nay they will slay a parent, if the prince so commands; but he cannot oblige them to drink wine. The laws of religion are of a superior nature, because they bind the sovereign as well as the subject. But with respect to the law of nature, it is otherwise; the prince is no longer supposed to be a man.

不过人们有时可以宗教的名义对抗君主的命令。如果君主命令某人抛弃甚至杀死他的父亲,他会老老实实地去执行;但是如果君主要求他喝酒,他会坚决拒绝。宗教的教义具有最高效力,这些教义不但约束着百姓,也制约着君主。但是,自然法并非如此,因为君主并非是一个普通人。


In monarchical and moderate states, the power is limited by its very spring, I mean by honour, which, like a monarch, reigns over the prince and his people. They will not allege to their sovereign the laws of religion; a courtier would be apprehensive of rendering himself ridiculous. But the laws of honour will be appealed to on all occasions. Hence arise the restrictions necessary to obedience; honour is naturally subject to whims, by which the subject's submission will be ever directed. 

Allege:断言,宣称

在君主政体和政治宽和的国家里,权力受到其动力的制衡;我所说的是受荣誉的限制;荣誉如同一个专制君王,统治着诸侯,也统治着人民。人们绝对不向君主推荐宗教原则,因为那样是可笑的。但是,人们将不断地向君主宣称荣誉的规则,由此服从便产生了一些改动。荣誉中有天然的怪异成分,而且服从本身将遵循这些成分。


Though the manner of obeying be different in these two kinds of government, the power is the same. On which side soever the monarch turns, he inclines the scale, and is obeyed. The whole difference is that in a monarchy the prince receives instruction, at the same time that his ministers have greater abilities, and are more versed in public affairs, than the ministers of a despotic government.

Soever:无论,不论何种。  Versed:精通的,熟练的;

虽然在这两种政体中,服从表现方式有所不同,然而,大权在握却是同样的。总的区别在于,君主政体下的君主有较高素养,而且大臣们也较精通政务,远优于专制国家的大臣。


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