论法的精神 (专制政体的服从和宽和政治的服从)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1975  by 名著  

In despotic states, the nature of government requires the most passive obedience; and when once the prince's will is made known, it ought infallibly to produce its effect.




Here they have no limitations or restrictions, no mediums, terms, equivalents, or remonstrances; no change to propose: man is a creature that blindly submits to the absolute will of the sovereign.



In a country like this they are no more allowed to represent their apprehensions of a future danger than to impute their miscarriage to the capriciousness of fortune. Man's portion here, like that of beasts, is instinct, compliance, and punishment.

Impute:把(错误等)归咎于。 Miscarriage:小产;流产;失策,失败   capricious:反复无常的


Little does it then avail to plead the sentiments of nature, filial respect, conjugal or parental tenderness, the laws of honour, or want of health; the order is given, and, that is sufficient.

Avail:效用,利益。Filial:子女的 conjugal:婚姻的,夫妻之间的


In Persia, when the king has condemned a person, it is no longer lawful to mention his name, or to intercede in his favour. Even if the prince were intoxicated, or non compos, the decree must be executed; otherwise he would contradict himself, and the law admits of no contradiction. This has been the way of thinking in that country in all ages; as the order which Ahasuerus gave, to exterminate the Jews, could not be revoked, they were allowed the liberty of defending themselves.

Intercede:说情;斡旋,调解   non compos:精神失常的。

Ahasuerus:亚哈随鲁【人物介绍】: 波斯帝国王,即薛西斯一世。据《以斯帖记》载,亚哈随鲁登基后第三年大宴宾客,在盛宴中王传令王后瓦实提出见宾客,好让臣民一睹她的美貌丰姿。但瓦实提却抗命不出,因此被亚哈随鲁王废黜。之后,亚哈随鲁另选犹太女子以斯帖为王后。亚哈随鲁王的宠臣哈曼,十分专横,朝中所有的臣仆都要向他跪拜,唯独以斯帖的养父、犹太人末底改不肯跪拜哈曼。哈曼定意消灭全国所有的犹太人作为报复。然而,这一阴谋被以斯帖揭露。于是亚哈随鲁王下令将哈曼悬吊在绞刑架上,这绞刑架原是哈曼为绞死末底改准备的。亚哈随鲁王不但撤销哈曼灭绝犹太人的命令,还授权犹太人可以杀死他们的仇敌,并使末底改居于高位以取代哈曼。为庆祝犹太人转危为安,避免种族灭绝的事件,形成了每年的普珥节。公元前480年,薛西斯王率水陆大军侵伐希腊,因海军在撒拉米大败,被迫溃退。据波斯史籍载,薛西斯残暴无道,骄横淫逸,最后被他的两位大臣弑杀。



One thing, however, may be sometimes opposed to the prince's will, namely, religion. They will abandon, nay they will slay a parent, if the prince so commands; but he cannot oblige them to drink wine. The laws of religion are of a superior nature, because they bind the sovereign as well as the subject. But with respect to the law of nature, it is otherwise; the prince is no longer supposed to be a man.


In monarchical and moderate states, the power is limited by its very spring, I mean by honour, which, like a monarch, reigns over the prince and his people. They will not allege to their sovereign the laws of religion; a courtier would be apprehensive of rendering himself ridiculous. But the laws of honour will be appealed to on all occasions. Hence arise the restrictions necessary to obedience; honour is naturally subject to whims, by which the subject's submission will be ever directed. 



Though the manner of obeying be different in these two kinds of government, the power is the same. On which side soever the monarch turns, he inclines the scale, and is obeyed. The whole difference is that in a monarchy the prince receives instruction, at the same time that his ministers have greater abilities, and are more versed in public affairs, than the ministers of a despotic government.

Soever:无论,不论何种。  Versed:精通的,熟练的;


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