论法的精神 (贵族政治的原则)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 2413  by 名著  

Of the Principle of Aristocracy.

As virtue is necessary in a popular government, it is requisite also in an aristocracy. True it is that in the latter it is not so absolutely requisite.

The people, who in respect to the nobility are the same as the subjects with regard to a monarch, are restrained by their laws. They have, therefore, less occasion for virtue than the people in a democracy.

贵族政治和平民政治一样需要美德,只是贵族政治并非绝对需要它。

平民和贵族的关系,类似贵族政体中臣民与君主的关系。平民受到法律的约束。因此相较于平民政治,贵族政体中的平民对美德的需求没那么强烈。


But how are the nobility to be restrained? They who are to execute the laws against their colleagues will immediately perceive that they are acting against themselves. Virtue is therefore necessary in this body, from the very nature of the constitution.

那么,又怎样制约贵族呢?如果那些执法者严格依法管理他的同僚,他自然会感到他们的执法行为会间接损害他们自己的利益。因此,依据政治体制的性质,贵族集团中仍需要美德。

   论法的精神 (贵族政治的原则)  

An aristocratic government has an inherent vigour, unknown to democracy. The nobles form a body, who by their prerogative, and for their own particular interest, restrain the people; it is sufficient that there are laws in being to

see them executed.


贵族政治自身具有民主政治所不具备的某种力量。为了谋取私人利益,贵族们利用其特权联合形成集团来制约平民。所以只要法律得以实施便足够了。

   

But easy as it may be for the body of the nobles to restrain the people, it is difficult to restrain themselves. Such is the nature of this constitution, that it seems to subject the very same persons to the power of the laws, and at the same time to exempt them.

Exempt:豁免

贵族集团制约平民容易,然而管理本集团并非易事。这种政体的性质就是如此,一方面用法律制约贵族,另一方面又给予他们种种法律特权。

        

Now such a body as this can restrain itself only in two ways; either by a very eminent virtue, which puts the nobility in some measure on a level with the people, and may be the means of forming a great republic; or by an inferior virtue, which puts them at least upon a level with one another, and upon this their preservation depends.

于是,这种团体只能以两种方法抑制自我。一是以较高的品德使贵族与平民处于相对平等的地位,这是为了组成健康的共和政体。一是以较低的品德制约贵族内部,使他们能够和平共处。

Moderation is therefore the very soul of this government; a moderation, I mean, founded on virtue, not that which proceeds from indolence and pusillanimity.

Pusillanimity [pju:sələ'nɪmətɪ]   :胆怯   indolence:懒惰

因此,适度是贵族政治的关键。我所指的是品德上的适度,而不是胆怯和懒惰上的节制。


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