论法的精神 (关于贵族政治性质的法)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1012  by 名著  

Of the Laws in relation to the Nature of Aristocracy. In an aristocracy the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a certain number of persons. These are invested both with the legislative and executive authority; and the rest of the people are, in respect to them, the same as the subjects of a monarchy in regard to the sovereign.

Subject:(在君主等)统治下的臣民      monarchy:君主政体 sovereign:君主

在贵族政体中最高权力掌握在一些特定人的手中,正是这些人制定并实施法律的。其余的人民与这些人的关系充其量也就像君主政体中的臣民与君主的关系。

   

They do not vote here by lot, for this would be productive of inconveniences only. And indeed, in a government where the most mortifying distinctions are already established, though they were to be chosen by lot, still they would not cease to be odious; it is the nobleman they envy, and not the magistrate.

Mortify:使丢面子;使窘迫;使羞愧

那里并没有实行抽签选举,因为那样必将引来诸多麻烦。事实上,一个已经建立了令人厌恶的门第等级制度的政府,即使选择抽签选举的方式,也无法减轻人们的憎恶感,因为嫉妒的是贵族,而不是官吏。

   

When the nobility are numerous, there must be a senate to regulate the affairs which the body of the nobles are incapable of deciding, and to prepare others for their decision.

既然贵族的数目如此庞大,就必须由元老院协调处理贵族集团无法决定的事务,并筹备贵族团体决议中的某些事务。


In this case it may be said that the aristocracy is in some measure in the senate, the democracy in the body of the nobles, and the people are a cipher.

Cipher:无足轻重的人;走狗;小兵小卒

在这种情况下,从某种意义上可以说,元老院中实行的是贵族政治,在贵族团体中则是民主政治,人民沦落到一钱不值的境地。


It would be a very happy thing in an aristocracy if the people, in some measure, could be raised from their state of annihilation. Thus at Genoa, the bank of St. George being administered by the people gives them a certain influence in the government, whence their whole prosperity is derived.

Annihilation:歼灭;消灭;毁灭

在贵族政治中,如果能通过某种间接的途径,使人民摆脱灭顶之灾,一定是莫大的好事;如同热那亚的圣乔治银行主要由人民中的精英人物进行管理,人民在政府中拥有某些权势,也会尽享繁荣。

   

The senators ought by no means to have the right of naming their own members; for this would be the only way to perpetuate abuses. At Rome, which in its early years was a kind of aristocracy, the senate did not fill up the vacant places in their own body; the new members were nominated by the censors.

参议院的参议员绝不应该有权补充其缺额成员,再也没有比这种权限更会使弊端长久持续的了。初期的罗马实行一种贵族政体,元老院无权自行补充缺额;新的参议员得由监察官任命。

   

In a republic, the sudden rise of a private citizen to exorbitant power produces monarchy, or something more than monarchy. In the latter the laws have provided for, or in some measure adapted themselves to, the constitution; and the principle of government checks the monarch:

exorbitant:过度的,极高的

在共和国里,某一个公民骤然获得过高的权力,便会发生像君主政体中或者更甚于君主政体的某种情况。在君主国中法律符合政体的要求,或者适应其政体;君主还能受到政体原则的约束。


but in a republic, where a private citizen has obtained an exorbitant power, the abuse of this power is much greater, because the laws foresaw it not, and consequently made no provision against it.

foresee:预知,预见

但是,在共和国里,某一个公民获得太高的权力时,这种权力的弊端便会更加明显地表现出来。因为没有任何防范的法律条文,所以对他们毫无约束力。


There is an exception to this rule, when the constitution is such as to have immediate need of a magistrate invested with extraordinary power. Such was Rome with her dictators, such is Venice with her state inquisitors; these are formidable magistrates, who restore, as it were by violence, the state to its liberty.

as it were:可以说;在某种程度上

这条规律的例外之处在于,当某个国家的政体架构需要一个强势的执政官时,就另当别论了。罗马的“独裁官们”,威尼斯的“国家审理官们”都是如此。这些官员让人们心惊胆战,他们强行把国家重新带入自由。


But how comes it that these magistracies are so very different in these two republics? It is because Rome supported the remains of her aristocracy against the people; whereas Venice employs her state inquisitors to maintain her aristocracy against the nobles.

但是,这些官职在这两个共和国中为何拥有如此巨大的差异呢?那是因为罗马维护的是贵族政治的残余,而且与人民作对;而在威尼斯人们则利用“国家审查官”维护其贵族政治,但是却与贵族作对。

The consequence was that at Rome the dictatorship could be only of short duration, as the people acted through passion and not with design.

这正是罗马的专政统治时间很短的原因所在,因为人民总是按照热情而绝非按规划行事。


It was necessary that a magistracy of this kind should be exercised with lustre and pomp, the business being to intimidate, and not to punish, the multitude. It was also proper that the dictator should be created only for some particular affair, and for this only should have an unlimited authority, as he was always created upon some sudden emergency.

Lustre: 光泽;光辉   pomp:排场;气派

独裁官员必须有气势,因为他们的目的在于威慑民众,并非去惩罚人民;独裁官只是为某一件事而设立,他们也只拥有处理这种事务的权力。因为这个官职总是针对某种意外情况而设立的。


On the contrary, at Venice they have occasion for a permanent magistracy; for here it is that schemes may be set on foot, continued, suspended, and resumed; that the ambition of a single person becomes that of a family, and the ambition of one family that of many.

在威尼斯情况则恰恰相反,那里设置一个永久性的执政官。通过这名执政官可以使各种规划付诸实施、得以继续、中止,或者重新开始;因为某个人的雄心壮志要想成为一个家族的雄心壮志,进而成为数个家族的雄心壮志,也必须依靠这种制度安排。


They have occasion for a secret magistracy, the crimes they punish being hatched in secrecy and silence. This magistracy must have a general inquisition, for their business is not to remedy known disorders, but to prevent the unknown.

Hatch:秘密策划          inquisition: <正>调查,审讯

人们需要有一个隐蔽的官职,因为这一职务所要惩处的罪行,往往是极其隐秘的,在暗中悄然进行的。因为它不是制止人们都知道的罪行,而是要预防人们不知道的罪行。


In a word, the latter is designed to punish suspected crimes; whereas the former used rather menaces than punishment even for crimes that were openly avowed.

Menace:威胁;恐吓        avow:公开声明,承认

总而言之,威尼斯的执政官的设立是为了惩处他所质疑的罪行。而罗马的独裁官对于罪行,甚至当事者已经承认的罪行,运用威胁手段多于惩罚手段。

 

In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration. This most legislators have fixed to a year; a longer space would be dangerous, and a shorter would be contrary to the nature of government.


Brevity:简洁; 短暂

在所有的官职中, 权力过大的职位会限制任期。大多数立法者将官职的任期确定为一年。若长于一年,也许会产生危险。若短于一年便不符合政府运作的特点。


For who is it that in the management even of his domestic affairs would be thus confined? At Ragusa the chief magistrate of the republic is changed every month, the other officers every week, and the governor of the castle every day. But this can take place only in a small republic environed by formidable powers, who might easily corrupt such petty and insignificant magistrates.

Ragusa:拉古萨共和国是1358年到1808年之间,以拉古萨(现在的克罗地亚杜布罗夫尼克)为中心所存在的国家。在15至16世纪时受奥斯曼帝国的保护,国力达到高峰,是当时亚德里亚海唯一能与威尼斯匹敌的城邦。1808年,因拿破仑的入侵而灭亡。

Environ:围住

有谁情愿这样管理自己的家务呢? 在拉古萨共和国,元首每个月更换,其他的官员每星期更换;城堡首领则是一天一换。这种情形也只能在一个被某些列强包围的小共和国里发生;那些强国可以轻而易举地贿赂共和国的小官吏们,使其腐败。

  

The best aristocracy is that in which those who have no share in the legislature are so few and inconsiderable that the governing party have no interest in oppressing them.

最理想的贵族政体是,不占有国家任何权力的人民极少。这样占国家支配地位的人民便毫无兴趣去压榨他们。


Thus when  Antipater made a law at Athens that whosoever was not worth two thousand drachms should have no power to vote, he formed by this method the best aristocracy possible; because this was so small a sum as to exclude very few, and not one of any rank or consideration in the city.

drachm:古希腊银币名。   Antipater:安提帕特(马其顿王国的将军和摄政者(公元前334-323年),在亚历山大三世军事战争期间统治帝国。公元前321至319年间再次摄政);

由于这一原因,在雅典当安提帕特尔规定拥有两千个德拉克马以上的人们,才能拥有选举权。他使建立最理想的贵族政治成为可能,因为这个财产门槛很低,被排除在选举之外的人数极少,在城市中几乎没有人不拥有选举权。


Aristocratic families ought therefore, as much as possible, to level themselves in appearance with the people. The more an aristocracy borders on democracy, the nearer it approaches perfection: and, in proportion as it draws towards monarchy, the more is it imperfect.

因此,贵族家庭更加尽其所能亲近人民。贵族政体越是与民主政体相近,便越趋于完备;越与君主政体相近,则越不理想。。


But the most imperfect of all is that in which the part of the people that obeys is in a state of civil servitude to those who command, as the aristocracy of Poland, where the peasants are slaves to the nobility.

最不理想的贵族政体,则是处于服从地位的那部分人民成为处于领导地位的那部分人民的私人奴隶,如同波兰的贵族政体,在那里农民是贵族的奴隶。


已有0条评论
外国经典网部分资料来源于网络,如果侵犯您的权益 ,请与我们联系,邮箱:wyzwylb@qq.com
皖ICP备2021015637号-1

皖公网安备 34011102001510号

Powered By Z-BlogPHP 1.7.2