论法的精神 (君主政体的教育)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1303  by 名著  

In monarchies the principal branch of ducation is not taught in colleges or academies. It commences, in some measure, at our setting out in the world; for this is the school of what we call honour, that universal preceptor which ought everywhere to be our guide.

Preceptor教师,导师

在君主政体中,人们接受主要教育的场所,不是在儿童们接受教育的公共学校,而是他们所处的社会环境;因此教育是从人们踏入社会开始的。社会就是给予人们所谓荣誉的学校;而荣誉就如同一位博学的导师,应该无处不在地引导着人们。

  

Here it is that we constantly hear three rules or maxims, viz., that we should have a certain nobleness in our virtues, a kind of frankness in our morals, and a particular politeness in our behaviour.

在这里,人们常听到这样的格言:“品德应该高尚;性情应该坦率;举止应该优雅。”

  

The virtues we are here taught are less what we owe to others than to ourselves; they are not so much what draws us towards society, as what distinguishes us from our fellow-citizens.

 在这里,人们向我们展示的品德,往往是独善其身,而不是兼济天下。这些品德,与其说是鼓励我们融入群体,还不如说是使我们卓尔不群。


Here the actions of men are judged, not as virtuous, but as shining; not as just, but as great; not as reasonable, but as xtraordinary. When honour here meets with anything noble in our actions, it is either a judge that approves them, or sophist by whom they are excused.

Sophist诡辩家

在那里,评判人们行为的依据不是道德,而是出色与否;不是公正与否,而是伟大与否;不是合理与否,而是卓越与否。如果荣誉符合某些高尚的东西,那么法官会把它们合法化,诡辩家会为它们找来各种理由。

   

It allows of gallantry when united with the idea of sensible affection, or with that of conquest; this is the reason why we never meet with so strict a purity of morals in monarchies as in republican governments.

Gallantry勇敢; (对女子的) 殷勤; 礼貌的言行

男人在充溢着情感或征服欲的状态下,向妇女献殷勤,是可以被接受的。所以说君主国的风俗之纯洁远不及共和国。

   

It allows of cunning and craft, when joined with the notion of greatness of soul or importance of affairs; as, for instance, in politics, with finesses of which it is far from being offended.

施如果动机纯正,为了伟大的事业,而不得已使用一些阴谋诡计,是可以被容许的。例如在政治上运用一些计策是无损荣誉的。

  

It does not forbid adulation, save when separated from the idea of a large fortune, and connected only with the sense of our mean condition.

Adulation:谄媚。

当阿谀逢迎并不为荣华富贵时,或者仅仅是因为自己地位卑下,这是难以接受的事情。  


With regard to morals, I have observed that the education of monarchies ought to admit of a certain frankness and open carriage. Truth, therefore, in conversation is here a necessary point. But is it for the sake of truth? By no means. Truth is requisite only because a person habituated to veracity has an air of boldness and freedom. And indeed a man of this stamp seems to lay a stress only on the things themselves, not on the manner in which they are received.

open carriage:本指敞篷马车,意为敞开心扉。Veracity:诚实,真实。Stamp:标志。

我前面已谈到的性情,君主政体的教育应该教导人们坦率热情。在日常生活中,交流应注重真实,那么这是出于对真理的热爱吗?绝对不是。人们之所以如此,是因为一个习惯说实话的人,会显得大胆自由、与众不同。其实这样直来不讳的人似乎只关注事物本身,而不是随波逐流。

   

Hence it is that in proportion as this kind of frankness is commended, that of the common people is despised, which has nothing but truth and simplicity for its object.

社会越是推崇坦率,民众的坦率就越是被习以为常。因为民众的坦率只是追求真实和质朴而已。


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