论法的精神 (君主政体不偏重品德)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1183  by 名著  

That Virtue is not the Principle of a Monarchical Government.

In monarchies, policy effects great things with as little virtue as possible. Thus in the nicest machines, art has reduced the number of movements, springs, and wheels.

在君主政体里,政策左右国家大事,却尽可能少地涉及美德。这就如同在最精良的机器里,技术的运用使发条、弹簧和齿轮都尽可能少地使用。

   

 

The state subsists independently of the love of our country, of the thirst of true glory, of self-denial, of the sacrifice of our dearest interests, and of all those heroic virtues which we admire in the ancients, and to us are known only by tradition.

self-denial:自我牺牲

国家的延续并不取决于热爱祖国、追求荣誉、舍弃自我、牺牲自己最珍贵的利益,以及古人流传下来的我们只是听闻过的英雄品德。

   

The laws supply here the place of those virtues; they are by no means wanted, and the state dispenses with them: an action performed here in secret is in some measure of no consequence.

在君主政体中,高尚品德都被法律取而代之;人们不愿培养高尚品德;国家也并不要求人民具有高尚品德:私下行为和秘密想法并不会任何法律后果。

   

 

 

Though all crimes be in their own nature public, yet there is a distinction between crimes really public and those that are private, which are so called because they are more injurious to individuals than to the community.

尽管所有的犯罪都具有社会危害性,人们仍然区分犯罪性质:公罪和私罪。之所以称为私罪,是因为这些罪行对个人法益的侵犯远甚于对社会法益的侵犯。

   

Now in republics private crimes are more public, that is, they attack the constitution more than they do individuals; and in monarchies, public crimes are more private, that is, they are more prejudicial to private people than to the constitution.

不过,在共和政体中,私罪具有较多的公罪性质,换句话说,这些罪行侵犯国家法益多于损害个人法益。而在君主政体中,公罪具有较多的私罪性质,换言之,这些罪行损害个人法益多于侵犯国家法益。

   

 

I beg that no one will be offended with what I have been saying; my observations are founded on the unanimous testimony of historians. I am not ignorant that virtuous princes are so very rare; but I venture to affirm that in a monarchy it is extremely difficult for the people to be virtuous.

我希望人们对我所说的话能够理解,因为所有历史都可以为之证明。尽管有品德的君主并不少,但我所说的是,在君主政体中平民是难以具有美德的。

   

 

Let us compare what the historians of all ages have asserted concerning the courts of monarchs; let us recollect the conversations and sentiments of people of all countries, in respect to the wretched character of courtiers, and we shall find that these are not airy speculations, but truths confirmed by a sad and melancholy experience.

Melancholy:悲伤的;凄凉的

让我们读一读历代史家的宫廷记实,品一品民众对朝臣卑劣人格的谈论吧!那些议论绝非无源之水,而是来自他们的惨痛经历。

  

 

Ambition in idleness; meanness 【卑贱】mixed with pride; a desire of riches without industry; aversion to truth; flattery, perfidy【背信弃义】, violation of engagements, contempt of civil duties, fear of the prince's virtue, hope from his weakness, but, above all, a perpetual ridicule cast upon virtue, are, I think, the characteristics by which most courtiers in all ages and countries have been constantly distinguished.

朝臣大多具有以下特征:眼高手低,骄横卑鄙、不劳而富;蔑视真理,溜须拍马、背信弃义;无视公民义务,企盼君主无能;甚至耻笑品德。


Now, it is exceedingly difficult for the leading men of the nation to be knaves, and the inferior sort to be honest; for the former to be cheats, and the latter to rest satisfied with being only dupes.

knave:恶棍,无赖       dupe:易受骗的人

如果现在一国之位高权重者都是流氓,却要地位卑下者甘愿成为傻子,这是极其难以做到的事。

   

But if there should chance to be some unlucky honest man among the people. Cardinal Richelieu, in his political testament, seems to hint that a prince should take care not to employ him. So true is it that virtue is not the spring of this government! It is not indeed excluded, but it is not the spring of government.

原注:We must not, says he, employ people of mean extraction【血统;家世】; they are too rigid and morose. — Testament Polit.

黎塞留:法王路易十三的宰相,及天主教枢机,波旁王朝第一任黎塞留公爵。

然而,如果有某个忠诚的平民可堪重用,该怎么办呢?红衣主教黎塞留在他的《政治遗嘱》中委婉地提醒君主不要任用这种忠诚的人。究其原因,品德确实不是君主政体的源泉! 然而,君主政体并不排斥品德,重用平民也未尝不可。


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