论法的精神 (君主政体的原则)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1669  by 名著  

In what Manner Virtue is supplied in a Monarchical Government.

But it is high time for me to have done with this subject, lest I should be suspected of writing a satire against monarchical government.

Satire:讽刺;讽刺作品

我得加快论述的进度,免得人们认为我在讥讽君主政体。


Far be it from me; if monarchy wants one spring, it is provided with another. Honour, that is, the prejudice of every person and rank, supplies the place of the political virtue of which I have been speaking, and is everywhere her representative: here it is capable of inspiring the most glorious actions, and, joined with the force of laws, may lead us to the end of government as well as virtue itself. 

即使君主政体缺少美德,它也具有另一种源泉,这就是荣誉。每个人和每个阶层都对荣誉有自己的成见。它代替了我所说的政治品德,并且处处被推崇。它能激励高尚的行为。如果辅以法律的权威,就能够达到政府目的,相当于美德之效用。

   

 

Hence, in well-regulated monarchies, they are almost all good subjects, and very few good men; for to be a good man a good intention is necessary, and we should love our country, not so much on our own account, as out of regard to the community.

因此,在管理得当的的君主政体中,几乎所有人都是好公民,然而却鲜有善人,因为欲为善人,须有善念,且爱国之情高于爱己之私。

 

 Of the Principle of Monarchy.

A monarchical government supposes, as we have already observed, pre-eminences and ranks, as likewise a noble descent. Now since it is the nature of honour to aspire to preferments and titles, it is properly placed in this government. 

如同我们所说,君主政体必须以尊贵的地位、显赫的门第,甚至高贵的出身为象征。而欲拥有这些,须先有荣誉,所以说荣誉在君主政体中至关重要。

   

 

Ambition is pernicious in a republic. But in a monarchy it has some good effects; it gives life to the government, and is attended with this advantage, that it is in no way dangerous, because it may be continually checked.

Pernicious有害的,恶性的(尤指潜移默化地)attend :[常用被动语态](作为结果、情况)伴随

人们野心勃勃不利于共和政体的维持。但是在君主政体里却会产生良好的效果。野心使君主政体产生活力,带来诸多好处,而且对政体本身并无危险,因为野心会不断被压制。


It is with this kind of government as with the system of the universe, in which there is a power that constantly repels all bodies from the centre, and a power of gravitation that attracts them to it. Honour sets all the parts of the body politic in motion, and by its very action connects them; thus each individual advances the public good, while he only thinks of promoting his own interest.

你或许会说,这就如同宇宙的体系一样,不仅存在着离心力,使所有物体远离中心,同时又存在着向心力,使它们围绕在中心周围。荣誉搭建起政治上层建筑的各个部分,并连接起来。所以当每个人以为这是追求私人利益,事实上他们也是实现公共利益。


True it is that, philosophically speaking, it is a false honour which moves all the parts of the government; but even this false honour is as useful to the public as true honour could possibly be to private persons.

从哲学意义上说,这种荣誉是不真实的,尽管它维持国家各个部分的运行;然而,这种不真实的荣誉有利于公众。就像真实的荣誉有利于个人一样。


Is it not very exacting to oblige men to perform the most difficult actions, such as require an extraordinary exertion of fortitude and resolution, without other recompense than that of glory and applause?

Exertion:行使;努力  fortitude:坚韧

但是,人们被迫使去做很多既困难又费力的行动,却得不到实实在在的好处,只是赢得口头上的赞誉,未免太过分了吧?


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