论法的精神 (专制国家需要恐惧)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1996  by 名著  

As virtue is necessary in a republic, and in a monarchy honour, so fear is necessary in a despotic government: with regard to virtue, there is no occasion for it, and honour would be extremely dangerous.

如同共和政体崇尚品德,君主政体推崇荣誉一样,专制政体需要恐惧。品德对于专制政体而言毫无必要,荣誉更是不利于专制统治。


Here the immense power of the prince devolves entirely upon those whom he is pleased to entrust with the administration. Persons capable of setting a value upon themselves would be likely to create disturbances. Fear must therefore depress their spirits, and extinguish even the least sense of ambition.

Devolve:交给下属(或下层、晚辈等)

专制政体中,君主把大权委托给他们所信任的人们。那些自命不凡的重臣或许会犯上作乱,所以君主就需要以恐惧压制人们的所有勇气,扑灭一切野心。


A moderate government may, whenever it pleases, and without the least danger, relax its springs. It supports itself by the laws, and by its own internal strength. But when a despotic prince ceases for one single moment to uplift his arm, when he cannot instantly demolish those whom he has entrusted with the first employments, all is over: for as fear, the spring of this government, no longer subsists, the people are left without a protector.

一个中规中矩的政体可以随时懈怠对于源动力的坚守,而不至于会发生危难。它依靠法律和政体内在力量维持运行。但是在专制政体下,当君主放松对于权力的集中,他就不能压制那些位高权重之臣,往往会一败涂地,因为此时这种政体的原动力恐惧已不复存在,人民就会缺乏安全感,容易被权臣利用。


It is probably in this sense the Cadis maintained that the Grand Seignior was not obliged to keep his word or oath, when he limited thereby his authority.

Cadi:下级法官  seignior:封建制度的君主

土耳其的法官们的主张正是如此,如果君主的承诺有损他的权威,他便无需再遵守其诺言。


It is necessary that the people should be judged by laws, and the great men by the caprice of the prince, that the lives of the lowest subject should be safe, and the pasha's head ever in danger. We cannot mention these monstrous governments without horror. The Sophi of Persia, dethroned in our days by Mahomet, the son of Miriveis, saw the constitution subverted before this resolution, because he had been too sparing of blood.

Pasha:帕夏(旧时奥斯曼帝国和北非高级文武官的称号,置于姓名后),高级文(武)官。Sophi:萨非(16~17世纪波斯王的称号,等于Sophy)subvert:颠覆,破坏

人民应该受到法律的约束,而权贵们却有可能时刻担心受到君主的随意制裁;低位卑微的人往往可能保全性命,而总督们的头颅则有倒悬之急。人们谈及这些,心里不禁战栗。被米利维斯废黜的波斯国王认识到自己的政权被征服前就已经支离破碎,那是因为他不曾使人民流过足够的血,以致他们无恐惧之心。

   

History informs us that the horrid cruelties of Domitian struck such a terror into the governors that the people recovered themselves a little during his reign. Thus a torrent overflows one side of a country, and on the other leaves fields untouched, where the eye is refreshed by the prospect of fine meadows. torrent急流;激流;洪流  

 论法的精神 (专制国家需要恐惧)

图密善:罗马帝国第十一位皇帝弗拉维王朝第三位也是最后一位皇帝。图密善的统治表现出强大的威权主义和专制主义特征,在其治下,宗教、军事和文化的宣传均助长了对皇帝的崇拜;此外,图密善通过自我任命为终身监察官的方式,试图控制公众和个人的行为及道德。因此,图密善受到人民和军队的欢迎与尊敬,但被罗马元老院视为专横独裁的暴君。公元96年9月18日,图密善在一场阴谋中被刺杀,终年44岁,宣告了弗拉维王朝的终结。     


历史启示我们,图密善恐怖的专横独裁使总督们心惊胆战,因而在他的统治下平民才稍微有机会得以休养。这就好比洪流冲毁了河岸的一侧,而另一侧却留下了充满生机的田野,苍茫之中草原依稀可见。


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