论法的精神 (实在法)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1426  by 名著  

Of Positive Laws. 

As soon as man enters into a state of society he loses the sense of his weakness; equality ceases, and then commences the state of war.人类一旦置身于社会,软弱的情感便荡然无存;原本存在于人们之间的平等也随之消失,于是战争状态便开始了。


Each particular society begins to feel its strength, whence arises a state of war between different nations. The individuals likewise of each society become sensible of their force; hence the principal advantages of this society they endeavour to convert to their own emolument, which constitutes a state of war between individuals.

emolument:报酬;薪水

每一个特殊的社会都意识到自己的力量;这就是产生国家间战争状态的原因所在。每一个社会中的某些个人开始意识到自己的力量所在,他们千方百计地想把社会的关键利益据为己有,于是人们之间的战争状态便开始了。
   

These two different kinds of states give rise to human laws. Considered as inhabitants of so great a planet, which necessarily contains a variety of nations, they have laws relating to their mutual intercourse, which is what we call the law of nations. As members of a society that must be properly supported, they have laws relating to the governors and the governed, and this we distinguish by the name of politic law. They have also another sort of law, as they stand in relation to each other; by which is understood the civil law.

intercourse:交际;交往;往来

这两种战争状态促使人们之间建立法律。我们如此巨大的地球上的居民中必然有着不同民族,于是便产生了万民法。为了维持这个社会的秩序,在统治者和被统治者之间存在着政治法。另则,调整所有的公民之间的关系,便是民法。

The law of nations is naturally founded on this principle, that different nations ought in time of peace to do one another all the good they can, and in time of war as little injury as possible, without prejudicing their real interests.

prejudicing:损害;危害;使更糟糕

万民法十分自然地建立在这样一个原则基础之上,这就是:在和平时期,各国应该尽其所能谋求彼此间的共同利益;在战争状态下,尽可能地减少损失,不至于毁灭各自真正的切身利益。
    

The object of war is victory; that of victory is conquest; and that of conquest preservation. From this and the preceding principle all those rules are derived which constitute the law of nations.

战争的目的是胜利。胜利的宗旨是征服。征服的主旨是保全。在此项原则和前一项原则之中必然能推导出构成国际公法的所有规则。


All countries have a law of nations, not excepting the Iroquois themselves, though they devour their prisoners: for they send and receive ambassadors, and understand the rights of war and peace. The mischief is that their law of nations is not founded on true principles.

Iroquois:易洛魁族人是北美印第安人的一支    mischief:恶作剧、损害、麻烦

所有的国家都有自己的万民法,就连那些吞食战俘的易洛魁人也不例外。他们派遣和接受双方使节,他们也谙熟战争与和平时期的权利,遗憾的是,他们的万民法并非建立在真实的原则之上。


Besides the law of nations relating to all societies, there is a polity or civil constitution for each particularly considered. No society can subsist without a form of government. "The united strength of individuals," as Gravina4 well observes, "constitutes what we call the body politic."

除了与所有的社会形态相关的万民法之外,还有它的政治法。一个社会如果没有政府将无法生存。格拉维那说得好:“所有个体力量的聚集就组成了我们所说的政治国家。”


The general strength may be in the hands of a single person, or of many. Some think that nature having established paternal authority, the most natural government was that of a single person. But the example of paternal authority proves nothing.

整体力量或许掌控在某个人或某些人手里。有些人认为大自然曾创立了父权,那么政府操纵在某个人手中最符合于自然。但是,父权的例证并非能够证明任何事物。


For if the power of a father relates to a single government, that of brothers after the death of a father, and that of cousins-german after the decease of brothers, refer to a government of many. The political power necessarily comprehends the union of several families.

cousins-german:嫡表兄弟;嫡堂兄弟  A boaster and a liar are cousins-german. 

吹牛者和撒谎者是表兄弟。

decease:<律>死亡   comprehend:包括;理解,领会

因为,如果父亲的权力与每个人统治的政体有关联的话,父亲死后兄弟们拥有的权力或者是兄弟们辞世后堂表兄弟拥有的权力,亦等同于多个人执掌政治。政治力量必然包括数个家族的联合。

Better is it to say, that the government most conformable to nature is that which best agrees with the humour and disposition of the people in whose favour it is established.

humour: 感觉;心情;精神状态

更为确切地说,一个民族所建立的政体,其政体的特点与该民族的本质特征能够恰如其分地吻合的话,它便是一个最适合自然的政府。
    

The strength of individuals cannot be united without a conjunction of all their wills. "The conjunction of those wills," as Gravina again very justly observes, "is what we call the civil state."

没有所有意志的趋同,个体的力量便无法得以联合。格拉维那说得再好不过了:“这所有意志的趋同便是我们所说的人民国家。”

Law in general is human reason, in as much as it governs all the inhabitants of the earth: the political and civil laws of each nation ought to be only the particular cases in which human reason is applied.

一般意义上说,作为治理地球上所有人民的法律是人类的理性所在。这些理性就形成各国不同的法。

They should be adapted in such a manner to the people for whom they are framed that it should be a great chance if those of one nation suit another.

这些法律是为某国的人民而制定的,所以理应十分贴切地适用于该国民众;如果这些法律适用于另一个国家,那只是极其偶然的事。

They should be in relation to the nature and principle of each government; whether they form it, as may be said of politic laws; or whether they support it, as in the case of civil institutions.

法律必须同政体的性质及原则相吻合;无论这些法律是为其构成政体而制定的政治法,还是为了维护其政体而制定的民事法。


They should be in relation to the climate of each country, to the quality of its soil, to its situation and extent, to the principal occupation of the natives, whether husbandmen, huntsmen, or shepherds: they should have relation to the degree of liberty which the constitution will bear; to the religion of the inhabitants, to their inclinations, riches, numbers, commerce, manners, and customs. In fine, they have relations to each other, as also to their origin, to the intent of the legislator, and to the order of things on which they are established; in all of which different lights they ought to be considered.

This is what I have undertaken to perform in the following work. These relations I shall examine, since all these together constitute what I call the Spirit of Laws.
    In fine:总而言之    intent:意图;目的

法律应该与国家的自然条件相联系;还与土壤的品质、位置和面积有关;法律与诸如农夫、猎人或者牧民等各种人民的生活方式息息相关。法律必须与政体所能承受的自由度相适应;还要以居民的宗教、性癖、财富、人口、贸易风俗以及言谈举止发生关系。最终,各种法律之间也有内在的关系;它们各自都有自己的渊源所在;立法者的目的以及不同法律建立的事物秩序也不同。应该通过这些因素仔细考察法律。
    这便是我力图在这部著作里阐述的各种观点的目的。我将对所有的关系进行研究。这些关系和观点的综合便构成了所谓“法的精神”。
    

I have not separated the political from the civil institutions, as I do not pretend to treat of laws, but of their spirit; and as this spirit consists in the various relations which the laws may bear to different objects, it is not so much my business to follow the natural order of laws as that of these relations and objects.

我并没有将政治法和民事法截然分开。因为我探讨的并不是法律本身,而是法的精神,而且这个精神蕴涵于所有的法律所涉及的各种事物之间的可能存在的各种关系之中,因此我应该尽量遵循这诸多关系和事物的内在秩序,而将法律的自然秩序置于其次。
    

I shall first examine the relations which laws bear to the nature and principle of each government; and as this principle has a strong influence on laws, I shall make it my study to understand it thoroughly: and if I can but once establish it, the laws will soon appear to flow thence as from their source. I shall proceed afterwards to other and more particular relations.

thence :从那里;因此;之后;从那时起

我将首先致力于对每一个政体的性质和原则相关联的法律的研究。因为政体的原则在法律中具有至高无上的影响力,我将潜心致力于对它的精确认识。一旦我的论证得以确认,人们将会看到法律会从原则里脱颖而出,就像喷涌而出的泉水一般。于是,我进而探讨其他看上去似乎特殊的关系。


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