论法的精神 (君主政体的教育和荣誉)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1571  by 名著  

In fine, the education of monarchies requires a certain politeness of behaviour. Man, a sociable animal, is formed to please in society; and a person that would break through the rules of decency, so as to shock those he conversed with, would lose the public esteem, and become incapable of doing any good.

Decency社会上高尚文雅行为的标准。

总之,君主国的教育要求人们的言行举止合乎礼法;人类是一切社会关系的总和,必然要和别人友好相处。那些不遵守社交惯例的人,会让所有与他共同生活的人们感到不适,因此口碑极差,以至于一事无成。

   

But politeness, generally speaking, does not derive its origin from so pure a source. It arises from a desire of distinguishing ourselves. It is pride that renders us polite; we are flattered with being taken notice of for behaviour that shows we are not of a mean condition, and that we have not been bred with those who in all ages are considered the scum of the people.         Scum浮渣; 泡沫; 糟粕

然而,礼貌行为的动机通常并非如此纯正,更多是欺世盗名。强烈的自尊心迫使他们故作伪装,以证实他们并不卑贱,从而获得别人的认可,并以此证明他们与历代糟糕之人不是同一类。

   

Politeness, in monarchies, is naturalised at court. One man excessively great renders everybody else little.   Naturalise吸收

Hence that regard which is paid to our fellow-subjects; hence that politeness, equally pleasing to those by whom, as to those towards whom, it is practised, because it gives people to understand that a person actually belongs, or at least deserves to belong, to the court.

在君主国里,宫廷之中也处处讲究礼节。因为一个伟大的人物会使别人都黯然失色。所以我们以此产生了对所有人的尊敬。以此产生的礼遇使有受礼者愉悦,也使受礼者对他人以礼相待,因为礼仪让某人感觉自己属于达官贵人,或者有资格成为宫中显要之人。

   

A courtly air consists in quitting a real for a borrowed greatness. The latter pleases the courtier more than the former. It inspires him with a certain disdainful modesty, which shows itself externally, but whose pride insensibly diminishes in proportion to its distance from the source of this greatness.

宫廷的氛围,通常忽视内在的涵养,而更注重矫饰的尊贵。这种氛围更多的是为了取悦朝臣。矫饰的尊贵带有某种令人轻蔑的谦恭。然而,朝臣越是注重矫饰外表,便会不自觉地失去高贵和荣耀。

  

At court we find a delicacy of taste in everything — a delicacy arising from the constant use of the superfluities of life, from the variety, and especially the satiety, of pleasures, from the multiplicity and even confusion of fancies, which, if they are but agreeable, are sure of being well received.

不难发现,在宫中,事事都很考究。这样的风气来源于长期的奢侈生活和心灵空虚,尤其是对刺激的寻求。这一切有乐趣的荒诞之事总是被欢欣接受。

   

These are the things which properly fall within the province of education, in order to form what we call a man of honour, a man possessed of all the qualities and virtues requisite in this kind of government.

这些都是君主政体教育的内容,就是为了培养貌似尊贵的人,他们身上具有这种政体所要求的一切特质和性情。

Here it is that honour interferes with everything, mixing even with people's manner of thinking, and directing their very principles.

Interfere干涉; 妨碍

在这里,无处不渗透着荣誉思想,它影响着人们的各种思维方式,甚至人们的原则也以它为依据。

   

To this whimsical honour it is owing that the virtues are only just what it pleases; it adds rules of its own invention to everything prescribed to us; it extends or limits our duties according to its own fancy, whether they proceed from religion, politics, or morality.

这个奇怪的荣誉按照其意愿设定了品德的范畴。它规定着我们所要做的一切。它依据其爱好扩展或限制我们的义务,不论这些义务源于宗教、政治或道德。

   

There is nothing so strongly inculcated in monarchies, by the laws, by religion and honour, as submission to the prince's will; but this very honour tells us that the prince never ought to command a dishonourable action, because this would render us incapable of serving him.

在君主政体中,法律、宗教和荣誉都告诉我们一切都要遵从君主的意志。然而,荣誉还启示我们另一句话,就是君主的旨意不能迫使我们去做有损荣誉的事。

   

Crillon refused to assassinate the Duke of Guise, but offered to fight him. After the massacre of St. Bartholomew, Charles IX, having sent orders to the governors in the several provinces for the Huguenots to be murdered, Viscount Dorte, who commanded at Bayonne, wrote thus to the king:

the massacre of St. Bartholomew :圣巴托洛缪大屠杀是法国 天主教暴徒对国内新教徒胡格诺派的恐怖暴行,开始于1572年8月24日,并持续了几个月。由于胡格诺派的不妥协的强硬态度,使该事件成为法国宗教战争的转折点。由于24日正值圣巴托洛节,因此这一血腥的夜晚在历史上被称为“圣巴托洛缪之夜”,圣巴托洛缪大屠杀由此而来。

 论法的精神 (君主政体的教育和荣誉)

Bayonne巴约讷法国西南部一城镇。

Huguenot:胡格诺教徒,基督教新教加尔文教派在法国的称谓。“Huguenots”原意“日内瓦宗教改革的追随者”。 17世纪以来,雨格诺派普遍被认定为“法国新教”。该派反对国王专政,曾于1562~1598年间与法国天主教派发生胡格诺战争,后因南特敕令而得到合法地位。后又遭迫害,直到1802年才得到国家正式承认。

里隆拒绝谋杀基司公爵,但是却向亨利三世提出愿意和基司公爵一决生死。圣巴托洛缪之夜后,查理九世下令屠杀新教徒。巴约讷的司令多特子爵上书国王说:

"Sire, among the inhabitants of this town, and your majesty's troops, I could not find so much as one executioner; they are honest citizens and brave soldiers. We jointly, therefore, beseech your majesty to command our arms and lives in things that are practicable." This great and generous soul looked upon a base action as a thing impossible.

Beseech 恳求,乞求   base 卑鄙的

“陛下,我在居民和士兵中没有找到一个滥杀之人,他们都是善良的公民和勇敢的士兵。所以,他们和我恳求陛下留着我们的手和命奉献于有益的事业。”这位伟大而仁慈的勇士认为卑鄙的事是绝对不能做的。

   

There is nothing that honour more strongly recommends to the nobility than to serve their prince in a military capacity. And, indeed, this is their favourite profession, because its dangers, its success, and even its miscarriages are the road to grandeur. Yet this very law of its own making honour chooses to explain: and in case of any affront, it requires or permits us to retire.

Affront冒犯。

为君主作战是极其荣耀的事情。其实,这是贵族优越的来源,因为危险、胜利、厄运是通往显贵的理由。然而,荣誉既然要求贵族承担这项义务,那么,义务的履行就要符合荣誉的法则,如果有人触犯了法则,就会失去荣誉。

  

It insists also that we should be at liberty either to seek or to reject employments, a liberty which it prefers even to an ample fortune.

荣誉还提倡人们自由地追求或拒绝某种职业,荣誉赋予的这种自由,甚至比财富更为珍贵。

   

Honour therefore has its supreme laws, to which education is obliged to conform.The chief of these are that we are permitted to set a value upon our fortune, but are absolutely forbidden to set any upon our lives.

因此荣誉有其自身的最高规律;教育必须遵循这些规律。其主要规律有:

第一,荣誉完全许可我们利欲熏心,却绝对禁止我们贪生怕死。

  

The second is that, when we are raised to a post or preferment, we should never do or permit anything which may seem to imply that we look upon ourselves as inferior to the rank we hold.

第二,当我们一旦获得某种地位的时候,我们不但不能做出不符合身份的事情,也不能容许别人做出有损自己荣誉的事情。

   

The third is that those things which honour forbids are more rigorously forbidden, when the laws do not concur in the prohibition; and those it commands are more strongly insisted upon, when they happen not to be commanded by law.          Concur同意

第三,荣誉严格禁止的事情,也许法律并未禁止;而法律上给予自由度的事情,荣誉却可能极其严厉的限制。


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