论法的精神 (政体性质和政体原则的区别)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1474  by 名著  

Difference between the Nature and Principle of Government.

政体的性质和政体原则的区别


Having examined the laws in relation to the nature of each government, we must investigate those which relate to its principle.

对每一种政体性质相关的法律有所了解后,我们应该探讨与政体的原则相关的法律。


There is this difference between the nature and principle of government, that the former is that by which it is constituted, the latter that by which it is made to act. One is its particular structure, and the other the human passions which set it in motion.

政体的性质和原则的区别在于:政体的性质是政体结构的要素;而政体的原则是政体行为的根据。前者是政体特殊的构成因素;后者则是推动政体运行的人类感情。


Now, laws ought no less to relate to the principle than to the nature of each government. We must, therefore, inquire into this principle, which shall be the subject of this third book.

不过,法律同各种政体原则的联系不低于与其性质的联系。因此,这是我们应该论述的内容。


2.Of the Principle of different Governments.I have already observed that it is the nature of a republican government that either the collective body of the people, or particular

families, should be possessed of the supreme power;of a monarchy, that the prince should have

this power, but in the execution of it should be directed by established laws;of a despotic government, that a single person should rule according to his own will and caprice. This enables me to discover their three principles; which are thence naturally derived. I shall begin with a republican

government, and in particular with that of democracy.

我曾论述过,共和政体是全体人民或是某些家族掌握最高权力;君主政体是君主掌握最高权力,不过他必须依据已确立的法律行使权力;专制政体是某一个人按照自己的意志管理国家,通常变化无常、任意妄为。这是我得出政体原则的依据。这些原则十分自然地派生而出。我首先从共和政体开始对民主政治进行论述。


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