论法的精神 (关于专制政体性质的法)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 998  by 名著  

Of the Laws in relation to the Nature of a despotic Government. 

From the nature of despotic power it follows that the single person, invested with this power, commits the execution of it also to a single person.

Commit:托付

在专制政体中,往往一个人专政,甚至代替他行使其权力的也是一个人,这是由它的性质决定的。


A man whom his senses continually inform that he himself is everything and that his subjects are nothing, is naturally lazy, voluptuous, and ignorant.

Voluptuous:骄奢淫逸的。

 一个极有优越感的人往往目空一切,蔑视他人,这样的人便自然地开始怠惰、愚昧,沉湎于淫逸。


In consequence of this, he neglects the management of public affairs. But were he to commit the administration to many, there would be continual disputes among them; each would form intrigues to be his first slave; and he would be obliged to take the reins into his own hands.

Intrigue:阴谋;诡计

因此,他对政务毫不关心。但是,如果他把政务委托给几个人,这些人之间就会玩弄阴谋诡计,设法成为君主的第一奴仆;这样君主又不得已亲自管理政务了。


It is, therefore, more natural for him to resign it to a vizir,26 and to invest him with the same power as himself. The creation of a vizir is a fundamental law of this government.

Vizir:[vɪ'zɪə]   (伊斯兰教国家)元老,高官


The Eastern kings are never without vizirs, says Sir John Chardin.

因此把政务托付给一个宰相,让这位大臣行使与他相同的权力,则是最符合政体的办法。在这种政体的国家里,设立一个宰相,则是一项基本法。

   

It is related of a pope that he had started an infinite number of difficulties against his election, from a thorough conviction of his incapacity. At length he was prevailed on to accept of the pontificate, and resigned the administration entirely to his nephew. Conviction:坚定的信念(或主张)    prevail:劝服;说服

Pontificate:教皇职务

据说,一个被选为教皇的人,开始百般推辞,原因是深感自己无法胜任,最后形势所迫,只得就任,可是却把所有的政务都委托给他的侄子管理。


He was soon struck with surprise, and said, "I should never have thought that these things were so easy."  The same may be said of the princes of the East, who, being educated in a prison where eunuchs 【太监】corrupt their hearts and debase their understandings, and where they are frequently kept ignorant even of their high rank, when drawn forth in order to be placed on the throne, are at first confounded: but as soon as they have chosen a vizir, and abandoned themselves in their seraglio 【后宫】to the most brutal passions; pursuing, in the midst of a prostituted court, every capricious extravagance, they would never have dreamed that they could find matters so easy.

Prostitute:妓女;卖淫。  Capricious:任性的

就职之后,他惊讶说道:“我从未想过当教皇竟然如此容易。”东方的君王们也有同感。他们还是皇子时,常年蛰居在监狱般的深宫之中,那里的宦官已让他们意志消沉,甚至使他们忘记自己的尊贵身份。一旦人们将他们推上王位,他们起初是惊慌失措;然而,当他们把政务委托给一个宰相之后,他们便在后宫里开始放纵兽欲;在一个淫乱的宫廷里,他们肆意妄为、尽情享乐,从未意识到当君王是如此的容易。


The more extensive the empire, the larger the seraglio; and consequently the more voluptuous the prince. Hence the more nations such a sovereign has to rule, the less he attends to the cares of government; the more important his affairs, the less he makes them the subject of his deliberations【深思熟虑】.

帝国扩张得越大,君王的宫殿也就越多;因此,君王越是沉湎于声色犬马。这就导致臣民越多,政务越繁重,君王就越怠惰,越加疏于管理。


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