论法的精神(自然法)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1470  by 名著  


Plain it is that his first ideas would not be of a speculative nature; he would think of the preservation of his being, before he would investigate its origin.

incline:(使)倾向;(使)趋向

显然人类最初萌发的思想毫无思辨性可言;在探求自己的生命起源之前,他想到的只是如何生存下去。


There would therefore be no danger of their attacking one another; peace would be the first law of nature.

人们不会绞尽脑汁地去相互攻击,因此,自然法的第一条就是和平。
 

The idea of empire and dominion is so complex, and depends on so many other notions, that it could never be the first which occurred to the human understanding.

subdue:征服;克制

权力和统治意念是一个十分复杂的组合过程,有赖于其他思想的辅佐,因此,绝不是人类最初的思想。


Fear, I have observed, would induce men to shun one another; but the marks of this fear being reciprocal, would soon engage them to associate. Besides, this association would quickly follow from  the very pleasure one animal feels at the approach of another of the same species. Again, the attraction arising from the difference of sexes would enhance this pleasure, and the natural inclination they have for each other would form a third law.

shun:避免;避开,回避        reciprocal:互相的;相应的;互惠的

我曾说过,畏惧使人们互不来往,但是人们相互畏惧的感觉又使人们相互亲近。另则,一个动物走近另一个同类动物时所产生的愉悦促使人们彼此亲近。加之两性间的差异所产生的盎然情趣,更加提高了愉悦的程度,因此,人类相互间的自然爱慕,应该是自然法的第三条。 


Beside the sense or instinct which man possesses in common with brutes, he has the advantage of acquired knowledge; and thence arises a second tie, which brutes have not. Mankind have therefore a new motive of uniting; and a fourth law of nature results from the desire of living in society.


 人类除了具有最初的情感之外,他们还能逐渐获得知识。这样他们便有了其他动物所不具备的第二种联系。于是他们随之产生了一种相互结合的新动机:生活在社会中的意愿。这就是自然法中的第四条。

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