论法的精神 (专制政体的教育)

at 4年前  ca 论法的精神经典语录  pv 1635  by 名著  

Of Education in a Despotic Government.

As education in monarchies tends to raise and ennoble the mind, in despotic governments its only aim is to debase it. Here it must necessarily be servile; even in power such an education will be an advantage, because every tyrant is at the same time a slave.

君主政体的教育是为了提高人们的心志,而专制国家的教育则致力于衰弱平民的心志。这就注定专制国家的教育必然是奴役性的。甚至对于权贵之人,奴隶性的教育也具有益处,因为专制君主也曾是奴隶。


Excessive obedience supposes ignorance in the person that obeys: the same it supposes in him that commands, for he has no occasion to deliberate, to doubt, to reason; he has only to will.

绝对的服从便意味着服从者是愚呆的,甚至发出命令的人也是愚呆的,因为他们不思索、不怀疑、不推理,仅仅只需要表达一下自己的意愿。


In despotic states, each house is a separate government. As education, therefore, consists chieflv in social converse, it must be here very much limited; all it does is to strike the heart with fear, and to imprint on the understanding a very simple notion of a few principles of religion. Learning here proves dangerous, emulation fatal; and as to virtue, Aristotle cannot think that there is any one virtue belonging to slaves; if so, education in despotic countries is confined within a very narrow compass.

在专制国家里,每一个家庭就是一个独立王国。其教育主要是教导人们如何与别人相处,因此其范畴是非常狭窄的;它让人们的心中充满畏惧,把某些极其简单的宗教原则和知识灌输进人们的思想。在那里,求知会招致危险,竞争会酿成祸害;至于道德,亚里士多德并不认为还有什么品德属于奴隶。这正是这种政体的教育范畴极为狭窄之所在。


Here, therefore, education is in some measure needless: to give something, one must take away everything, and begin with making a bad subject in order to make a good slave.

因此,在一定程度上,专制政体的教育就是强加一些不必要的事情,洗去其他所有的想法,把人变得愚呆,最终成为一个合格的奴隶。


For why should education take pains in forming a good citizen, only to make him share in the public misery? If he loves his country, he will strive to relax the springs of government; if he miscarries he will be undone; if he succeeds, he must expose himself, the prince, and his country to ruin.

Miscarry:失败。

专制政体的教育怎样培养心系民众疾苦的好公民呢?如果这样的公民热爱他的国家的话,他就会致力于减缓政府的原动力。但是一旦失败,他将会一败涂地。即使成功,也将使自己与君主、帝国一同覆灭。


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